LibGuides: Feminist Movements, 1880s to the Present: 1960s-1980s (2022)

  • Elizabeth (Betsy) Alden Papers

    United Methodist clergywoman, Duke graduate, coordinator of Service Learning for Kenan Institute for Ethics at Duke. Primarily published materials relating to women's employment, religious, legal, and domestic issues, especially during the 1970s and 1980s in Texas.

  • Dorothy Allison Papers

    Dorothy Allison is an author and feminist who has written numerous books and short stories, including Trash (1988), Bastard Out of Carolina (1992), and Cavedweller (1998). The Dorothy Allison Papers include drafts and manuscripts of her writings (including Bastard Out of Carolina, Trash, Cavedweller, and other works), personal and professional correspondence, research materials and subject files, her personal journals, and other materials. Includes some photographs, electronic files, and oversize materials.

  • Pauline Bart Papers

    Pauline Bart is a feminist sociologist and former professor of sociology and psychiatry. From the 1960s to the 1990s, Bart was active in many feminist and civil rights issues, including anti-pornography protests, sexual assault and rape law reform, Jewish and middle-aged women's advocacy, reproductive rights, and violence against women.

  • Sallie Bingham Papers

    Sallie Bingham is a writer, teacher, feminist activist, and philanthropist. She has published several novels and collections of stories, three collections of poetry, numerous plays, and a family memoir. She is founder of the Kentucky Foundation for Women, which published The American Voice, and the Sallie Bingham Center for Women’s History and Culture at Duke University. She was born and raised in Louisville, Kentucky, and currently resides in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  • Phyllis Chesler Papers

    Feminist psychologist and author (Women and Madness, About Men, etc). Collection includes publishing files, research files, academic/teaching materials, subject files, correspondence, writings, printed materials, and ephemera. Parts of collection under restricted access.

  • Nikki Craft Papers

    Activist who uses guerilla theater to protest the media's control of women's bodies, e.g. anti-beauty contest, anti-pornography. One small box of mostly flyers, photos, newsletters, newspaper accounts of her projects, more.

    (Video) History of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Sara Evans Papers

    Contains papers documenting the teaching, research, writing, and activism of the author of the groundbreaking 1979 study, Personal Politics, about the emergence of the Women's Liberation Movement from the Civil rights and New Left movements. Some of her work is documented in the Boyte Family Papers, 1941-1981, which include material about her involvement in New Left and Socialist organizations (with former husband Harry Boyte), some papers Evans's time as a student at Duke, SNCC newsletters and minutes from the Feminary Collective and Lollipop Power meetings.

  • Leah Fritz Papers

    American feminist poet and author. Born in the United States, Fritz has been active in England since moving there in 1985. The Leah Fritz papers contain correspondence and subject files; writings, including notebooks and diaries, drafts, published articles, and papers related to the publication of Fritz's prose writings, poetry, and book and article reviews; and audiocassettes of presentations and poetry readings by Fritz and other recordings.

  • Milo Guthrie Papers

    Southern activist, environmentalist, politician, and graphic artist. Collection has many movement flyers, pamphlets, and newsletters. Check the finding aid for names of organizations and titles of newsletters.

  • Kay Leigh Hagan Papers

    Writer, teacher, and feminist. Much of her early career focused on raising women's consciousness by teaching how to recognize various forms of internalized oppression in private classes she called "Feminars." In addition to her writing and teaching, this collection documents Hagan's many public speaking appearances and workshops.

  • Judith Hennessee Papers

    Biographer of Betty Friedan and member of National Organization for Women. Materials related to NOW, especially their media monitoring of ABC; also clippings, buttons, and stickers; research materials for Friedan biography. Parts of collection under restricted access.

  • Merle Hoffman Papers

    Publisher/editor-in-chief of On the Issues magazine and founder/director of Choices Women's Medical Center, Inc. and Choices Mental Health Center. Files document professional and personal activities.

    (Video) The Fight For Women's Rights | Flashback | NBC News
  • Angela Jeannet Papers

    Angela Jeannet Papers, 1969-1984
    Co-founder of Lancaster (PA) Women's Liberation Group. Clippings and publications (volumes, pamphlets, newsletters, and other periodicals) related to the movement, on topics including sexual harassment, ERA, pro-choice movement, campus activism, NOW, and women and work; correspondence and meeting minutes.

  • Jean Kilbourne Papers

    Jean Kilbourne is an author, speaker, and filmmaker known for her work on the image of women in advertising through the film series Killing Us Softly and her critical studies of alcohol and tobacco advertising.

  • Kate Millett Papers

    Author, feminist theorist, activist, and visual artist. Manuscripts, writings, photographs, correspondence, research materials, financial files, college notebooks, paintings, and sculptures. Parts of the collection under restricted access.

  • Robin Morgan Papers

    Feminist activist, poet, journalist, author, child star, and longtime editor of Ms. magazine. Documents personal, political, and professional life. Includes materials on Ms., demonstrations against Miss America Pageants, and other activist work; correspondence with Gloria Steinem, Simone de Beauvoir, Kate Millet, Adrienne Rich, Sallie Bingham, and many others; drafts, typescripts, and other materials related to her published and unpublished writings. Parts of the collection under restricted access.

  • Catherine Nicholson Papers

    Lesbian, feminist writer and magazine publisher, resident of Durham, N.C.; co-founder of Sinister Wisdom, a multicultural lesbian literary and art journal. Bulk of the material dated 1974-2005.

  • Bobbye Ortiz Papers

    International socialist feminist grassroots organizer from 1940s to 1980s. Collection documents professional and personal life and includes personal correspondence; extensive subject files on international political and cultural movements; photographs and slides; ephemera; sounds recordings; US and international movement posters from the 1960s and 70s; and more.

    (Video) What you need to know about the gay rights movement
  • Victoria Ortiz Papers

    Activist and author, currently Assistant Dean for Student Services at the UC-Berkeley School of Law; daughter of Bobbye Ortiz. Newspaper and magazine articles, organizational materials, photographs, pamphlets, speeches, and reports related to the international women's movement. Parts of collection under restricted access.

  • Irene Peslikis Papers

    Feminist activist and artist. Records documenting Feminist Art Institute, Redstockings, and journal Women & Art; artwork; writings; correspondence; financial, legal, and medical files; teaching notes and files; subject files; photographs and slides; audio and videocassettes.

  • Minnie Bruce Pratt papers

    An award-winning poet, Pratt has published collections of both poetry and essays. Pratt began teaching and grass roots organizing in North Carolina in the 1970s, and has continued her work as a professor and activist through 2008, the time of this writing. The collection dates primarily between 1975 and 2005 and focuses on women's studies, sexual and gender identity, sexuality, and Pratt's fight against racism, sexism, imperialism and other forms of intolerance.

  • Alix Kates Shulman Papers

    Feminist activist and author (Memoirs of an Ex-Prom Queen, Drinking the Rain, etc). Collection includes manuscripts, family papers, correspondence and clippings, with an emphasis on early feminist research and activism. Parts of collection under restricted access.

  • Mab Segrest Papers

    Southern author, feminist, gay rights and anti-racism activist. Correspondence, research files, manuscript drafts, printed materials, teaching files, and other papers concerning Segrest's career and personal life. Collection under restricted access.

  • Miriam Slifkin papers

    Women's rights activist in Chapel Hill, N.C., who founded and was president of the North Carolina Chapter of the National Organization of Women (NOW) and the Orange County Rape Crisis Center.

    (Video) The 1960s in America: Crash Course US History #40
  • Ann Barr Snitow Papers

    Ann Barr Snitow is a feminist activist, writer, and professor of literature and gender studies at Eugene Lang College The New School for Liberal Arts. Collection includes teaching files, subject files, materials documenting Snitow's involvement in various groups and organizations, feminist publications in Eastern European languages, and her writings.

  • Margery Sved Papers

    Psychiatrist and original member of the Triangle Area Lesbian Feminists (TALF). Active in the Women’s Health Teaching Group, a group of women who taught medical students about giving pelvic exams to women by allowing the students to practice on them.

  • Meredith Tax Papers

    Meredith Tax is an American writer and feminist activist. Her papers include correspondence, writings, and other papers concerning her career and life. These records also document her involvement in Boston's Bread and Roses, a socialist-feminist collective, Women's WORLD, a global free speech network, CARASA (Committee for Abortion Rights and Against Sterilization Abuse), PEN American Center Women's Committee, and International PEN Women's Writers Committee. Tax's work as a writer, of books, both fiction and nonfiction, articles, essays, and speeches as well as songs, are represented in the Writings, Speeches, and Songs series.

  • Dorothy "Cookie" Teer Papers

    Dorothy "Cookie" Foster Teer is a native of Durham, N.C. In the early 1980s, Teer became a radical feminist, activist, and speaker, giving slide shows around the United States on pornography, sex role stereotyping, and child pornography. She co-founded the Southern Sisters Bookstore in Durham, N.C., which was "by, for, and about women."

  • Batya Weinbaum Papers

    Batya Weinbaum is a writer, feminist, artist, editor, and professor. She is founding editor of Femspec Journal, and has published five books. Her papers document her academic career, writing and editing, feminist activism, travel, and lesbian separatist communities.

FAQs

What was the feminist movement in the 1980s? ›

Difference feminism was developed by feminists in the 1980s, in part as a reaction to popular liberal feminism (also known as "equality feminism"), which emphasizes the similarities between women and men in order to argue for equal treatment for women.

What were the main focuses of feminist movements in the 1960s and 1970s? ›

The feminist movement of the 1960s and '70s originally focused on dismantling workplace inequality, such as a denial of access to better jobs and salary inequity, via anti-discrimination laws.

What were the major goals of the feminist movement of the 80s and 70s? ›

Activists fought for gender issues, women's sexual liberation, reproductive rights, job opportunities for women, violence against women, and changes in custody and divorce laws.

What were the 3 major goals of the feminist movement? ›

For some, the goals of the feminist movement were simple: let women have freedom, equal opportunity, and control over their lives.

What was feminism in the 1800s? ›

The first feminist wave is the name for a period that lasted from around 1850 to 1940. The wave was characterized by the pursuit of legal equal rights for women. The emphasis was on the right to education and paid work.

What was feminism in the 1960s? ›

Gradually, Americans came to accept some of the basic goals of the Sixties feminists: equal pay for equal work, an end to domestic violence, curtailment of severe limits on women in managerial jobs, an end to sexual harassment, and sharing of responsibility for housework and child rearing. .

What are two major events of the women's movement in the 1960's? ›

June 10: The Equal Pay Act of 1963 was signed into law by President John F. Kennedy. June 16: Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in outer space, another Soviet first in the U.S.-U.S.S.R.

What are the 3 phases of the feminist movement? ›

Elaine Showalter's three phases of feminism: the “feminine” (women writers imitate men), the “feminist” (women advocated minority rights and protested), and the “female” (the focus is now on women's texts as opposed to merely uncovering misogyny in men's texts).

What were the major movements in the 1960s? ›

The 1960s were one of the most tumultuous and divisive decades in world history, marked by the civil rights movement, the Vietnam War and antiwar protests, political assassinations and the emerging "generation gap."

Was the women's movement of the 1960s and 1970s a success or a failure? ›

Leaving aside the antiwar movement of the 1960s, which I think played an important role in bringing the war to an end, the women's movement was the most successful movement of the 1960s and 1970s. The idea that women should enjoy full equality with men was a startlingly radical idea then.

What is the main message of the feminist movement? ›

Gender equality refers to equal rights, opportunities, and responsibilities for all people, regardless of gender. Feminism is an ideology that advocates for women's rights based on gender equality. The movement focuses specifically on putting an end to sexism and the exploitation of women in society.

What was the most important feminist movement? ›

1: Suffrage Movement

Rallying other socially minded people together to discuss the status of women, Stanton and Mott organized the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. The Declaration of Sentiments, penned by Stanton, outlined the need for equality among men and women, including voting rights.

What are the 4 types of feminism? ›

Introduction – Feminism: The Basics

There are four types of Feminism – Radical, Marxist, Liberal, and Difference.

How did the feminist movement impact society? ›

The feminist movement has effected change in Western society, including women's suffrage; greater access to education; more equitable pay with men; the right to initiate divorce proceedings; the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy (including access to contraceptives and abortion); and the ...

What were the goals of the women's rights movement in the mid 1800s? ›

They argued that women deserved equal wages and career opportunities in law, medicine, education and the ministry. First and foremost among their demands was suffrage — the right to vote. The women's rights movement in America had begun in earnest.

How did women's rights change in the 1800s? ›

Early women's rights leaders believed suffrage to be the most effective means to change an unjust system. By the late 1800s, nearly 50 years of progress afforded women advancement in property rights, employment and educational opportunities, divorce and child custody laws, and increased social freedoms.

How did women's lives change in the 1800s? ›

In the mid 1800's, women became resistant to the oppression by men and they wanted to become totally independent. As a result, they protested for equal education opportunities and religion activism. It was not that easy; women had to fight both men and fellow women.

Why was the era between 1890 and 1920 called the women's Era? ›

Some historians refer to the thirty years between 1890 and 1920 as the "Women's Era" because it was in that time that women started to have greater economic and political opportunities. Women were also aided by legal changes like getting the right to own property, control their wages and make contracts and wills.

Who started the feminist movement in the 1960s? ›

The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963, when Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality. Prospects of Mankind with Eleanor Roosevelt; What Status For Women?, 59:07, 1962.

Why is the women's rights movement Important 1960s? ›

The women's rights movement of the 1960s and '70s was a social movement with the main goal of women's freedom (for this reason, it was also called the women's liberation movement) and equality. It upset long-established social norms and brought about groundbreaking changes in the American political and legal systems.

Who was involved in the feminist movement 1960s? ›

  • Betty Friedan. Journalist, activist, and co-founder of the National Organization for Women, Betty Friedan was one of the early leaders of the women's rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s.
  • Gloria Steinem. ...
  • Audre Lorde. ...
  • Dorothy Pitman Hughes. ...
  • Angela Davis. ...
  • Shirley Chisholm.
26 Jan 2021

What were 3 major events in the 1960s? ›

  • First Televised Presidential Debate Airs. ...
  • Kennedy Elected. ...
  • Bay of Pigs: Failed Invasion of Cuba. ...
  • U.S. Denies Soviet Control of Space. ...
  • Kennedy Warns of Possible Nuclear Attack. ...
  • USSR Tests Hydrogen Bomb. ...
  • First SDS Convention. ...
  • Cuban Missile Crisis.

What were some achievements of the women's movement of the 1960s? ›

Divorce laws were liberalized; employers were barred from firing pregnant women; and women's studies programs were created in colleges and universities. Record numbers of women ran for—and started winning—political office.

What are 3 important things about the 1960's? ›

Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated in April by James Earl Ray. The Civil Rights Act of 1968 is signed into law by President Johnson. Richard Nixon wins the United States presidential election. The first manned Apollo mission, Apollo 7, is launched by NASA.

How many types of feminist movements are there? ›

Three main types of feminism emerged: mainstream/liberal, radical, and cultural.

What are the 5 types of feminism? ›

  • Kinds of Feminism.
  • Liberal Feminism.
  • Radical Feminism.
  • Marxist and Socialist Feminism.
  • Cultural Feminism.
  • Eco-Feminism.
  • I-Feminism new wave? http://www.ifeminists.net/introduction/

When was the first feminist movement? ›

The first attempt to organize a national movement for women's rights occurred in Seneca Falls, New York, in July 1848.

What movements were in the 60s and 70s? ›

The 1960s and early 1970s represented a period of large scale protest in United States history. Recognizable movements during the period included the anti-Vietnam War campaign, the civil rights movement, women's liberation, the student movement, and last, but not least, the counterculture.

What was the 60s movement called? ›

The counterculture movement, from the early 1960s through the 1970s, categorized a group of people known as "hippies" who opposed the war in Vietnam, commercialism and overall establishment of societal norms.

What movements happened in the 1970s? ›

The 1970s are remembered as an era when the women's rights, gay rights and environmental movements competed with the Watergate scandal, the energy crisis and the ongoing Vietnam War for the world's attention.

In what ways did women's roles change in society during the 1980s? ›

Strides in continued education
  • While college was largely a boys' club in the early 20th century, women turned that around during the 1980s. ...
  • As women became more educated, their salaries began to increase in relation to men's salaries. ...
  • Women in the '80s made huge strides in politics.
22 Jul 2020

What was the biggest accomplishment of the women's movement? ›

Here's a look at some of the major accomplishments of the women's movement over the years:
  • 1850: The Women's Movement Gets Organized. ...
  • 1893: States Begin to Grant Women the Right to Vote. ...
  • 1903: A Union Is Formed for Working Women. ...
  • 1916: Women Gain Access to Birth Control. ...
  • 1920: The 19th Amendment Becomes Law.

What changes did the women's movement bring in the 1970s? ›

The women's movement was most successful in pushing for gender equality in workplaces and universities. The passage of Title IX in 1972 forbade sex discrimination in any educational program that received federal financial assistance.

What did the feminist movement fight for? ›

While the first-wave feminism of the 19th and early 20th centuries focused on women's legal rights, especially the right to vote (see women's suffrage), the second-wave feminism of the women's rights movement touched on every area of women's experience—including politics, work, the family, and sexuality.

Why is the feminist movement so important? ›

Feminist movements work to change women's condition and women's position. What this means is that in addition to advocating for women's access to their immediate needs, the feminist movement works to dismantle the root causes of inequality that force women into subordinate roles in society.

What were the main goals of the women's movement? ›

Their broad goals included equal access to education and employment, equality within marriage, and a married woman's right to her own property and wages, custody over her children and control over her own body.

Who led the first feminist movement? ›

The first women's movement was led by the Dansk Kvindesamfund ("Danish Women's Society"), founded in 1871. Line Luplau was one of the most notable woman in this era. Tagea Brandt was also part of this movement, and in her honor was established the Tagea Brandt Rejselegat or Travel Scholarship for women.

What movement influenced the women's movement? ›

During the 1960s, influenced and inspired by the Civil Rights Movement, women of all ages began to fight to secure a stronger role in American society.

What are the six core principles of feminist theory? ›

A comprehensive review of multidisciplinary literature revealed six principles of feminist pedagogy: reformation of the relationship between professor and student, empowerment, building community, privileging voice, respecting the diversity of personal experience, and challenging traditional pedagogical notions.

Who created feminism? ›

Mary Wollstonecraft is seen by many as a founder of feminism due to her 1792 book titled A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in which she argues for women's education. Charles Fourier, a utopian socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word "féminisme" in 1837.

What was the main result of the modern women's movement? ›

Although the modern women's movement has made significant progress, its goals remain largely the same as in the 1970s and 1980s: end violence against women, achieve gender parity in politics, provide more opportunities for women in managerial and decision-making roles, and work towards financial equality in the ...

What were the 2 main goals of the Progressive women's movement? ›

Progressive Era women reformers launched state and national programs like pensions for mothers and state aid for widows. They advocated for the end of child labor and unsafe working conditions.

What were women's expectations in the 1800s? ›

The 19th century American woman was expected to cook, clean, and take care of other household duties. Chaos seemed to reign in the early 1800s. Cities swelled with immigrants and farmers' sons and daughters seeking their fortunes. Disease, poverty, and crime were rampant.

What was the second wave feminist movement of the 1980s? ›

It was a reaction to women returning to their roles as housewives and mothers after the Second World War. The Second Wave of feminism is usually demarcated from the 1960s to the late 1980s. It was a reaction to women returning to their roles as housewives and mothers after the end of the Second World War.

What is the main message of the feminist movement? ›

Gender equality refers to equal rights, opportunities, and responsibilities for all people, regardless of gender. Feminism is an ideology that advocates for women's rights based on gender equality. The movement focuses specifically on putting an end to sexism and the exploitation of women in society.

What was the biggest feminist movement? ›

1: Suffrage Movement

Rallying other socially minded people together to discuss the status of women, Stanton and Mott organized the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. The Declaration of Sentiments, penned by Stanton, outlined the need for equality among men and women, including voting rights.

What was the original purpose of the feminist movement? ›

The first wave of feminism took place in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, emerging out of an environment of urban industrialism and liberal, socialist politics. The goal of this wave was to open up opportunities for women, with a focus on suffrage.

What is first second and third wave feminism? ›

The key difference between first second and third wave feminism is that the first wave feminism was mainly about suffrage, and the second wave feminism was about reproductive rights, whereas the third wave feminism was about female heteronormality.

When was the 1st wave of feminism? ›

The first wave of the feminist movement is usually tied to the first formal Women's Rights Convention that was held in 1848.

What was the third wave feminist movement? ›

Influenced by the postmodernist movement in the academy, third-wave feminists sought to question, reclaim, and redefine the ideas, words, and media that have transmitted ideas about womanhood, gender, beauty, sexuality, femininity, and masculinity, among other things.

How has the feminist movement changed society? ›

The feminist movement has effected change in Western society, including women's suffrage; greater access to education; more equitable pay with men; the right to initiate divorce proceedings; the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy (including access to contraceptives and abortion); and the ...

Why is the feminist movement so important? ›

Feminist movements work to change women's condition and women's position. What this means is that in addition to advocating for women's access to their immediate needs, the feminist movement works to dismantle the root causes of inequality that force women into subordinate roles in society.

What are the 3 phases of the feminist movement? ›

Elaine Showalter's three phases of feminism: the “feminine” (women writers imitate men), the “feminist” (women advocated minority rights and protested), and the “female” (the focus is now on women's texts as opposed to merely uncovering misogyny in men's texts).

Who led the first feminist movement? ›

Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a young mother from upstate New York, and the Quaker abolitionist Lucretia Mott, about 300 people—most of whom were women—attended the Seneca Falls Convention to outline a direction for the women's rights movement.

What are the different feminist movements? ›

Traditionally feminism is often divided into three main traditions, sometimes known as the "Big Three" schools of feminist thought: liberal/mainstream feminism, radical feminism and socialist or Marxist feminism.

What are the four major trends in feminism? ›

(i) an effort to make women a self-conscious category; (ii) a force to generate a rational sensible attitude towards women; (iii) an approach to view the women in their own positions; (iv) an approach to view the women through their own perspectives.

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