LibGuides: Feminist Movements, 1880s to the Present: 1960s-1980s (2022)

  • Elizabeth (Betsy) Alden Papers

    United Methodist clergywoman, Duke graduate, coordinator of Service Learning for Kenan Institute for Ethics at Duke. Primarily published materials relating to women's employment, religious, legal, and domestic issues, especially during the 1970s and 1980s in Texas.

  • Dorothy Allison Papers

    Dorothy Allison is an author and feminist who has written numerous books and short stories, including Trash (1988), Bastard Out of Carolina (1992), and Cavedweller (1998). The Dorothy Allison Papers include drafts and manuscripts of her writings (including Bastard Out of Carolina, Trash, Cavedweller, and other works), personal and professional correspondence, research materials and subject files, her personal journals, and other materials. Includes some photographs, electronic files, and oversize materials.

  • Pauline Bart Papers

    Pauline Bart is a feminist sociologist and former professor of sociology and psychiatry. From the 1960s to the 1990s, Bart was active in many feminist and civil rights issues, including anti-pornography protests, sexual assault and rape law reform, Jewish and middle-aged women's advocacy, reproductive rights, and violence against women.

  • Sallie Bingham Papers

    Sallie Bingham is a writer, teacher, feminist activist, and philanthropist. She has published several novels and collections of stories, three collections of poetry, numerous plays, and a family memoir. She is founder of the Kentucky Foundation for Women, which published The American Voice, and the Sallie Bingham Center for Women’s History and Culture at Duke University. She was born and raised in Louisville, Kentucky, and currently resides in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  • Phyllis Chesler Papers

    Feminist psychologist and author (Women and Madness, About Men, etc). Collection includes publishing files, research files, academic/teaching materials, subject files, correspondence, writings, printed materials, and ephemera. Parts of collection under restricted access.

  • Nikki Craft Papers

    Activist who uses guerilla theater to protest the media's control of women's bodies, e.g. anti-beauty contest, anti-pornography. One small box of mostly flyers, photos, newsletters, newspaper accounts of her projects, more.

    (Video) BIRTH OF SOCAL FIBER: ARTISTS, INSTITUTIONS AND INFLUENCES IN THE 1960S -1980S
  • Sara Evans Papers

    Contains papers documenting the teaching, research, writing, and activism of the author of the groundbreaking 1979 study, Personal Politics, about the emergence of the Women's Liberation Movement from the Civil rights and New Left movements. Some of her work is documented in the Boyte Family Papers, 1941-1981, which include material about her involvement in New Left and Socialist organizations (with former husband Harry Boyte), some papers Evans's time as a student at Duke, SNCC newsletters and minutes from the Feminary Collective and Lollipop Power meetings.

  • Leah Fritz Papers

    American feminist poet and author. Born in the United States, Fritz has been active in England since moving there in 1985. The Leah Fritz papers contain correspondence and subject files; writings, including notebooks and diaries, drafts, published articles, and papers related to the publication of Fritz's prose writings, poetry, and book and article reviews; and audiocassettes of presentations and poetry readings by Fritz and other recordings.

  • Milo Guthrie Papers

    Southern activist, environmentalist, politician, and graphic artist. Collection has many movement flyers, pamphlets, and newsletters. Check the finding aid for names of organizations and titles of newsletters.

  • Kay Leigh Hagan Papers

    Writer, teacher, and feminist. Much of her early career focused on raising women's consciousness by teaching how to recognize various forms of internalized oppression in private classes she called "Feminars." In addition to her writing and teaching, this collection documents Hagan's many public speaking appearances and workshops.

  • Judith Hennessee Papers

    Biographer of Betty Friedan and member of National Organization for Women. Materials related to NOW, especially their media monitoring of ABC; also clippings, buttons, and stickers; research materials for Friedan biography. Parts of collection under restricted access.

  • Merle Hoffman Papers

    Publisher/editor-in-chief of On the Issues magazine and founder/director of Choices Women's Medical Center, Inc. and Choices Mental Health Center. Files document professional and personal activities.

    (Video) Artist, Images and Action: 1960s-1980s
  • Angela Jeannet Papers

    Angela Jeannet Papers, 1969-1984
    Co-founder of Lancaster (PA) Women's Liberation Group. Clippings and publications (volumes, pamphlets, newsletters, and other periodicals) related to the movement, on topics including sexual harassment, ERA, pro-choice movement, campus activism, NOW, and women and work; correspondence and meeting minutes.

  • Jean Kilbourne Papers

    Jean Kilbourne is an author, speaker, and filmmaker known for her work on the image of women in advertising through the film series Killing Us Softly and her critical studies of alcohol and tobacco advertising.

  • Kate Millett Papers

    Author, feminist theorist, activist, and visual artist. Manuscripts, writings, photographs, correspondence, research materials, financial files, college notebooks, paintings, and sculptures. Parts of the collection under restricted access.

  • Robin Morgan Papers

    Feminist activist, poet, journalist, author, child star, and longtime editor of Ms. magazine. Documents personal, political, and professional life. Includes materials on Ms., demonstrations against Miss America Pageants, and other activist work; correspondence with Gloria Steinem, Simone de Beauvoir, Kate Millet, Adrienne Rich, Sallie Bingham, and many others; drafts, typescripts, and other materials related to her published and unpublished writings. Parts of the collection under restricted access.

  • Catherine Nicholson Papers

    Lesbian, feminist writer and magazine publisher, resident of Durham, N.C.; co-founder of Sinister Wisdom, a multicultural lesbian literary and art journal. Bulk of the material dated 1974-2005.

  • Bobbye Ortiz Papers

    International socialist feminist grassroots organizer from 1940s to 1980s. Collection documents professional and personal life and includes personal correspondence; extensive subject files on international political and cultural movements; photographs and slides; ephemera; sounds recordings; US and international movement posters from the 1960s and 70s; and more.

    (Video) The 1960s in America: Crash Course US History #40
  • Victoria Ortiz Papers

    Activist and author, currently Assistant Dean for Student Services at the UC-Berkeley School of Law; daughter of Bobbye Ortiz. Newspaper and magazine articles, organizational materials, photographs, pamphlets, speeches, and reports related to the international women's movement. Parts of collection under restricted access.

  • Irene Peslikis Papers

    Feminist activist and artist. Records documenting Feminist Art Institute, Redstockings, and journal Women & Art; artwork; writings; correspondence; financial, legal, and medical files; teaching notes and files; subject files; photographs and slides; audio and videocassettes.

  • Minnie Bruce Pratt papers

    An award-winning poet, Pratt has published collections of both poetry and essays. Pratt began teaching and grass roots organizing in North Carolina in the 1970s, and has continued her work as a professor and activist through 2008, the time of this writing. The collection dates primarily between 1975 and 2005 and focuses on women's studies, sexual and gender identity, sexuality, and Pratt's fight against racism, sexism, imperialism and other forms of intolerance.

  • Alix Kates Shulman Papers

    Feminist activist and author (Memoirs of an Ex-Prom Queen, Drinking the Rain, etc). Collection includes manuscripts, family papers, correspondence and clippings, with an emphasis on early feminist research and activism. Parts of collection under restricted access.

  • Mab Segrest Papers

    Southern author, feminist, gay rights and anti-racism activist. Correspondence, research files, manuscript drafts, printed materials, teaching files, and other papers concerning Segrest's career and personal life. Collection under restricted access.

  • Miriam Slifkin papers

    Women's rights activist in Chapel Hill, N.C., who founded and was president of the North Carolina Chapter of the National Organization of Women (NOW) and the Orange County Rape Crisis Center.

    (Video) The Fight For Women's Rights | Flashback | NBC News
  • Ann Barr Snitow Papers

    Ann Barr Snitow is a feminist activist, writer, and professor of literature and gender studies at Eugene Lang College The New School for Liberal Arts. Collection includes teaching files, subject files, materials documenting Snitow's involvement in various groups and organizations, feminist publications in Eastern European languages, and her writings.

  • Margery Sved Papers

    Psychiatrist and original member of the Triangle Area Lesbian Feminists (TALF). Active in the Women’s Health Teaching Group, a group of women who taught medical students about giving pelvic exams to women by allowing the students to practice on them.

  • Meredith Tax Papers

    Meredith Tax is an American writer and feminist activist. Her papers include correspondence, writings, and other papers concerning her career and life. These records also document her involvement in Boston's Bread and Roses, a socialist-feminist collective, Women's WORLD, a global free speech network, CARASA (Committee for Abortion Rights and Against Sterilization Abuse), PEN American Center Women's Committee, and International PEN Women's Writers Committee. Tax's work as a writer, of books, both fiction and nonfiction, articles, essays, and speeches as well as songs, are represented in the Writings, Speeches, and Songs series.

  • Dorothy "Cookie" Teer Papers

    Dorothy "Cookie" Foster Teer is a native of Durham, N.C. In the early 1980s, Teer became a radical feminist, activist, and speaker, giving slide shows around the United States on pornography, sex role stereotyping, and child pornography. She co-founded the Southern Sisters Bookstore in Durham, N.C., which was "by, for, and about women."

  • Batya Weinbaum Papers

    Batya Weinbaum is a writer, feminist, artist, editor, and professor. She is founding editor of Femspec Journal, and has published five books. Her papers document her academic career, writing and editing, feminist activism, travel, and lesbian separatist communities.

FAQs

What was the feminist movement in the 1980s? ›

Difference feminism was developed by feminists in the 1980s, in part as a reaction to popular liberal feminism (also known as "equality feminism"), which emphasizes the similarities between women and men in order to argue for equal treatment for women.

What were the main focuses of feminist movements in the 1960s and 1970s? ›

The feminist movement of the 1960s and '70s originally focused on dismantling workplace inequality, such as a denial of access to better jobs and salary inequity, via anti-discrimination laws.

What were the major goals of the feminist movement of the 80s and 70s? ›

Activists fought for gender issues, women's sexual liberation, reproductive rights, job opportunities for women, violence against women, and changes in custody and divorce laws.

What were the 3 major goals of the feminist movement? ›

For some, the goals of the feminist movement were simple: let women have freedom, equal opportunity, and control over their lives.

What was the women's movement in the 1960's? ›

women's rights movement, also called women's liberation movement, diverse social movement, largely based in the United States, that in the 1960s and '70s sought equal rights and opportunities and greater personal freedom for women. It coincided with and is recognized as part of the “second wave” of feminism.

Was the women's movement of the 1960s and 1970s a success or a failure? ›

Leaving aside the antiwar movement of the 1960s, which I think played an important role in bringing the war to an end, the women's movement was the most successful movement of the 1960s and 1970s. The idea that women should enjoy full equality with men was a startlingly radical idea then.

What are two major events of the women's movement in the 1960's? ›

June 10: The Equal Pay Act of 1963 was signed into law by President John F. Kennedy. June 16: Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in outer space, another Soviet first in the U.S.-U.S.S.R.

Who led the feminist movement in the 1960s? ›

Journalist, activist, and co-founder of the National Organization for Women, Betty Friedan was one of the early leaders of the women's rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s.

Who started the feminist movement in the 1960s? ›

The movement is usually believed to have begun in 1963, when Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, and President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality. Prospects of Mankind with Eleanor Roosevelt; What Status For Women?, 59:07, 1962.

Why did the feminist movement start in the 1960s? ›

Why did the women's rights movement start? The women's rights movement began in the late 19th century with American women fighting for the right to vote. The movement in the '60s and '70s was inspired by the successes of the civil rights movement.

What is the main objective of feminist movement? ›

The major goals of the feminist movement include creating equal opportunities and new freedoms for women. The purpose of the feminist movement has shifted over time. However, in all four waves, feminists have sought to end discrimination and violence by pursuing social and legal reform.

What were the goals of the women's rights movement in the mid 1800s? ›

They argued that women deserved equal wages and career opportunities in law, medicine, education and the ministry. First and foremost among their demands was suffrage — the right to vote. The women's rights movement in America had begun in earnest.

What are the 4 types of feminism? ›

Introduction – Feminism: The Basics

There are four types of Feminism – Radical, Marxist, Liberal, and Difference.

How did the feminist movement impact society? ›

The feminist movement has effected change in Western society, including women's suffrage; greater access to education; more equitable pay with men; the right to initiate divorce proceedings; the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy (including access to contraceptives and abortion); and the ...

What was the first feminist movement? ›

The first wave of feminism took place in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, emerging out of an environment of urban industrialism and liberal, socialist politics. The goal of this wave was to open up opportunities for women, with a focus on suffrage.

How did feminism change in the 1970s? ›

Feminists marched, lobbied and protested throughout the 1970s, often in clever and creative ways. The Ladies' Home Journal sit-in led to changes in how women's magazines, which were still being edited by men and marketed to women as subservient to their husbands, were produced.

What happened in 1960 for women's rights? ›

In 1960, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the birth control pill, freeing women from the restrictions of pregnancy and childbearing. Women who were able to limit, delay, and prevent reproduction were freer to work, attend college, and delay marriage.

What were the major achievements of the women's movement? ›

Divorce laws were liberalized; employers were barred from firing pregnant women; and women's studies programs were created in colleges and universities. Record numbers of women ran for—and started winning—political office.

In what ways did women's roles change in society during the 1980s? ›

Strides in continued education
  • While college was largely a boys' club in the early 20th century, women turned that around during the 1980s. ...
  • As women became more educated, their salaries began to increase in relation to men's salaries. ...
  • Women in the '80s made huge strides in politics.
22 Jul 2020

What were major issues in the women's movement? ›

The main issues that third wave feminists are concerned about include: sexual harassment, domestic violence, the pay gap between men and women, eating disorders and body image, sexual and reproductive rights, honour crimes and female genital mutilation.

What are the biggest issues in feminism? ›

Main navigation
  • Leadership and political participation.
  • Economic empowerment.
  • Ending violence against women.
  • Peace and security.
  • Humanitarian action.
  • Governance and national planning.
  • Youth.
  • Women and girls with disabilities.
17 Jul 2020

Who led the feminist movement? ›

Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a young mother from upstate New York, and the Quaker abolitionist Lucretia Mott, about 300 people—most of whom were women—attended the Seneca Falls Convention to outline a direction for the women's rights movement.

What challenges did the feminist movement face? ›

They battled racism, economic oppression and sexual violence—along with the law that made married women little more than property of their husbands.

What were women's rights in the 1950s? ›

Women in the 1950s were not allowed to make contracts or wills, could not buy or sell property, had little control of their earnings in most situations, and were discouraged from acting politically, such as hold office, even though they could vote. Women's rights were minimal.

What were women's rights in the 1800s? ›

Women couldn't own property, and they had to give any money they made over to their husbands. They also weren't allowed to vote. By the mid-1800s, women started to fight back, demanding suffrage, or the right to vote.

Why did the women's movement start? ›

The movement for woman suffrage started in the early 19th century during the agitation against slavery. Women such as Lucretia Mott showed a keen interest in the antislavery movement and proved to be admirable public speakers.

What wave of feminism began in the 1960s? ›

The second wave feminism movement took place in the 1960s and 1970s and focused on issues of equality and discrimination. Starting initially in the United States with American women, the feminist liberation movement soon spread to other Western countries.

What is referred to as feminist movement? ›

Feminist movements can be defined either broadly, as collective efforts to improve the situation of women, or narrowly, as movements that specifically embrace a feminist identity.

Who founded the feminist theory? ›

Although writings that could be characterized as “feminist” or embodying the perspectives and experiences of women have appeared throughout time, the history of Western feminist theory usually begins with the works of Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797), one of the first feminist writers in the liberal tradition.

When did the feminist movement start? ›

The first attempt to organize a national movement for women's rights occurred in Seneca Falls, New York, in July 1848.

When was the second wave of feminism? ›

The second wave feminism movement took place in the 1960s and 1970s and focused on issues of equality and discrimination. Starting initially in the United States with American women, the feminist liberation movement soon spread to other Western countries.

What caused second wave feminism? ›

This movement was triggered by the publishing of Betty Friedan's book, The Feminine Mystique, a renowned feminist text credited for daring to break social conventions regarding the portrayal of women. Friedan was inspired by Simone de Beauvoir's book, The Second Sex, first published in Paris in 1949.

Who started the third wave of feminism? ›

The third wave of feminism emerged in the mid-1990s. It was led by so-called Generation Xers who, born in the 1960s and '70s in the developed world, came of age in a media-saturated and culturally and economically diverse milieu.

What is the main objective of feminist movement? ›

The major goals of the feminist movement include creating equal opportunities and new freedoms for women. The purpose of the feminist movement has shifted over time. However, in all four waves, feminists have sought to end discrimination and violence by pursuing social and legal reform.

What were women's rights in the 1800s? ›

Women couldn't own property, and they had to give any money they made over to their husbands. They also weren't allowed to vote. By the mid-1800s, women started to fight back, demanding suffrage, or the right to vote.

What is the aim of feminist movement? ›

The goal of feminism is to challenge the systemic inequalities women face on a daily basis. Contrary to popular belief feminism has nothing to do with belittling men, in fact feminism does not support sexism against either gender. Feminism works towards equality, not female superiority.

What is first second and third wave feminism? ›

The key difference between first second and third wave feminism is that the first wave feminism was mainly about suffrage, and the second wave feminism was about reproductive rights, whereas the third wave feminism was about female heteronormality.

What is the difference between first and second wave feminism? ›

Whereas first-wave feminism focused mainly on suffrage and overturning legal obstacles to gender equality (e.g., voting rights and property rights), second-wave feminism broadened the debate to include a wider range of issues: sexuality, family, domesticity, the workplace, reproductive rights, de facto inequalities, ...

When did the first wave of feminism end? ›

1918: It wasn't until 1918 that the president, Woodrow Wilson, announced his support for suffrage, leading to the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1919. Historians largely view this as the end of the first wave of feminism.

What did first wave feminism focus on? ›

The first wave of feminism took place in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, emerging out of an environment of urban industrialism and liberal, socialist politics. The goal of this wave was to open up opportunities for women, with a focus on suffrage.

What caused the third wave of feminism? ›

The third wave is traced to the emergence of the riot grrrl feminist punk subculture in Olympia, Washington, in the early 1990s, and to Anita Hill's televised testimony in 1991 (to an all-male, all-white Senate Judiciary Committee) that African-American judge Clarence Thomas had sexually harassed her.

What caused the first wave of feminism? ›

Many abolitionists were also feminists and thus the anti-slavery movement fueled the first wave and vice versa. Suffrage, the right of women to vote in elections, became the goal of the movement with the formation of the American Equal Rights Association in 1866.

What are the 4 types of feminism? ›

Introduction – Feminism: The Basics

There are four types of Feminism – Radical, Marxist, Liberal, and Difference.

How many waves of feminism have there been? ›

Established feminist movements within the United States have primarily fallen into four different time periods. The different movements—often termed first wave, second wave, third wave, and fourth wave feminism—share similar goals but different characteristics of action.

What are the three phases of feminism? ›

Elaine Showalter's three phases of feminism: the “feminine” (women writers imitate men), the “feminist” (women advocated minority rights and protested), and the “female” (the focus is now on women's texts as opposed to merely uncovering misogyny in men's texts).

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