Feminism is the principle that values women’s experiences and ideas; feminism also emphasizes that women and men should be socially, economically, and legally equal. Feminism is to be a voice of advancement towards women’s rights and to also advocate for the equality of all types of people. Everyone should be advocates for equality of everyone, looking past sex, whether it be differences on legal standpoints, religion, morals, sexual orientation, etc. Women, however, tend to carry a heavier role in this advocacy because women tend to have experiences and ideas of peace and understanding in such a way that men cannot grasp. Both exemplify the advancement of women in the past and current climate as well as the fight for equality. But, to contrast, although the book's definition does not blackball other types of people, it does only state that men and women should be socially, economically, and legally equal making it vague to me.
Men can be feminists and play a role in feminism. These men that are in support of feminism are called profeminists. Profeminists support feminism and they want to eliminate destructive aspects of gender, such as gender stereotypes, gender inequalities, and gender-related violence. The pro-feminist men can also be known as allies, providing support to groups other than their own. Men are stuck between the rock and the hard place: wanting to help and be an ally for feminist, but, due to the virtue of their birth, they don’t tend to have the experience that goes with gender-based oppression which makes it hard for them to offer help, or is turned down by the women who “hate men”.
What most people don’t know, feminism has many different branches that entail many different ideas and outlooks on feminism. These are the four different theoretical approaches to feminism: liberal feminism, cultural feminism, radical feminism, and women-of-color feminism. Starting with liberal feminism, this stresses the goal of gender equality by giving the same rights and opportunities to both women and men. This group believes that there can be laws passed to equal the rights of both genders. Cultural feminism underlines the positive qualities that are stronger in women than in men, for example, nurturing and caretaking. Cultural feminism more because shines a light on positive qualities that woman possesses that man don’t. But, some of these qualities are brought upon a woman, not by choice, but because she is solely a woman. Cultural feminist considers reconstructing society to benefit both the working man and woman as well as emphasizing cooperation. Another approach to feminism is radical feminism, arguing that the basic cause of woman’s oppression lies deep in the entire sex and gender system, rather than superficial laws and policies. This as a way of saying that men are “scums”. This approach is usually portrayed in media making certain people turn down the idea of feminism. The organization known as Society for the Psychological Study of Men and Masculinity stated that “both men and women function best and have the richest relationships if they can move beyond the traditional definitions of gender roles” (SPSMM, Division 51 of the American Psychological Association, 2010). The last idea of feminism is women-of-color feminism which points out that the other types of feminism overemphasize gender, whereas woman-of-color states that feminism must pay attention to other dimensions such as ethnicity and social class.
In the Feminist Perspective Scale (Henley, Meng, O’Brien, McCarthy, & Sockloskie, 1998), statements are given and are rated based on readers' opinion. For liberal feminism, some statements include “The government is responsible for making sure that all women receive an equal chance at education and employment”, “A socialist restructuring of businesses and institutions is necessary for women and people of color to assume equal leadership with White men”, “Legislation is the best means to ensure a woman’s choice of whether or not to have an abortion”, “It is the capitalist system which forces women to be responsible for child care”. These statements blame the government for not having an active voice in feminism and gender equality. Statements such as “The availability of adequate child care is central to a woman’s right to work outside the home”, “Men should follow women’s lead in religious matters because women have a higher regard for love and peace than men”, “Women’s experience in life’s realities of cleaning, feeding people, caring for babies, etc., makes their vision of reality clearer than men’s” lean more toward cultural feminism, in my opinion, because they focus on gender differences and a woman’s qualities that makes her a woman. “Racism and sexism make double the oppression for women of color in the work environment”, ” Sex-role stereotypes are only one symptom of the larger system of patriarchal power, which is the true source of women’s subordination”, “Rape is best stopped by replacing the current male-oriented culture of violence with an alternative culture based on more gentle, womanly qualities”, “Rape is ultimately a powerful tool that keeps women in their place, subservient to and terrorized by men” indicates ideas of radical feminism because oppression lies in the sex and gender system rather than laws and policies. Lastly, woman-color feminism shows differences not only lie in gender but in ethnicity and social class: “Women of color are oppressed by White standards of beauty”, “Much of the talk about power for women overlooks the need to empower people of all races and colors first.”
We've found 300 essays on Feminism
Metaphor in “The Yellow Wallpaper”
The beginning of the 19 the century is characterized by strong discrimination and oppression of women in society meaning that women were something like private property being able only to keep house and to bear children. Gilman comes from a long list of freedom fighters …
Feminist Interpretation of Hemingway’s ”Hills like White Elephants”
Hemingway’s works have largely covered the subject of feminism, and his short story ”Hills like white elephants” perfectly portrays a woman who breaks the norms of a society dominated by men and masculinity. As we all know, feminism is a social movement , an ideology …
FeminismHills Like White Elephants
Summary of The Radical Idea of Marrying for Love
Summary of “The Radical Idea of Marrying for Love” In the essay “The Radical Idea of Marrying for Love”, Stephanie Coontz surveys the history of marriage throughout the world, revealing its historical purposes and the philosophies surrounding it. Coontz gives examples of how once people …
Haven’t found the relevant content? Hire a subject expert to help you with
Essays on Feminism
$35.80 for a 2-page paper
get custom paper
Motherhood and Its Challenges
The word mother means a female parent who brings up a child, takes care of her and loves absolutely by putting the needs of her children over her own. A mother takes the whole duty of parenting with both her words and her actions. Being …
Wid and Gad
Gender by definition refers to the characteristics, trades, attributes or even roles that are expected for males and females by a given culture or society. Some can say the general social meaning of being male or female. The WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT (WID) this approach was …
The Changing Role of Women in Society
Changing Role of Women in Society How was the status of woman and their rights represented in western society in the 1600 to early 20th century? For centuries, woman and their rights have been oppressed by the dominance of man. There has been continued struggle …
Women’s Emancipation in the 21st Century
Name: Lola Purba SCN: 1223420 Subject: Writing Teacher: Ms. Jane Persad Women’s Emancipation in The 21th Century “…When you educate a man you educate an individual, when you educate a woman you educate a whole family…” Johnetta B, Cole wisely stated. Cole’s quotation draws an …
Womens Basketball Essay
The average man also tends to be faster ND stronger than the average woman according to Livingston. Com. Women, nonetheless, are very athletic and skilled in their own right and deserve the same recognition as athletes as men receive. The reason their games are not …
Doris Lessing’s To Room 19 Symbols
Women in patriarchal societies are brought up to have certain values, like to have a desire to be good mothers and good wives. However, as much as they try to do these things, they find that their passions and instincts are put down and this …
Wizard of Oz- How Is Dorothy a Feminist Hero?
In what ways can Dorothy be described as a feminist hero? In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, L. Frank Baum has made sure there is a feminist hero in his book. This is because everyone should see an example of a good feminist hero, especially …
The short story ‘Everything’s Arranged’ by Siew Yue Killingley is about a Ceylonese girl named Rukumani that having a secret affair with a Ceylonese boy named Devanayagam while studying at University. Both of them love each other deeply. As they went for longs term vacation, …
English 248 12 December 2009 Elizabeth Keckley: Is She a Pioneer of Womanism? Keckley was born a slave in Virginia. She was an excellent seamstress and dressmaker. Using her skill and contacts she bought her freedom in 1855. After she was freed, she made her …
Our Barbies, Ourselves: Emily Prager’s
Why does Prager say that “suddenly a lot of things made sense” when she discovered that Barbie was designed by a man? Is she referring here only to Barbie’s looks? Emily had doubts whether the Barbie Doll could have been designed by a woman. Barbie’s …
Pioneers, oh pioneers
“Pioneers, Oh, Pioneers. ” The author Jean Rhys was born in 1890 and brought up in Roseau, Dominica. Her father was Welsh and her mother Creole, so she grew up between two worlds. Savory underlines that this is manifested in her divided attitude towards cultural …
Case Analysis #2
Rongsheng Yuan MGMT250 Hector Martinez Case analysis#2 03/27/13 Amelia Rogers, the account director for Tassani Communication, worked with the Marketing director, Guy Johnson. Johnson informed her that Dave Burns, the creative director had phoned him to discuss the direction of the “Rust No More Muffler” …
Feminism in Education: Gender Equality
Prior to 1870 education was not formally recognised and only available to the elite few who could afford to educate their children privately or at private schools. The poorer people of society would have to rely on the education of the church and its moral …
Feminism in Pakistan
Out of the fifteen people asked, 53% of the survey population responded negatively to the question inquiring whether men were equal to women. Zahra Mania, a secretary for a business organization claimed that in our society, there is a substantial gap in the rights of …
Literary Theory: Feminist Literary Theory
Women have been suffering since the beginning of the history because of patriarchal order. Feminism is a clash of women against patriarchy. Suffering of women created the concept of feminism as a gender based political and social movement. In public and private sphere, women have …
Becoming the Woman or Man You Want to Be
In present society, men and women alike are still bound to the stereotypes assigned to their respective sexes. While the gender situation has definitely improved today as compared to the past decades, the discrimination between the sexes is still present. The gender impositions are clearly …
Is Patriarchy the Main Cause of Gender Inequality?
This view is held by Radical feminists, they believe that patriarchy is society is the reason that women are oppressed and exploited by men, and Marxists for example hold the view that the capitalist system is the reason for the gender inequality. Feminists believe that …
FeminismGenderGender InequalityHegemonic MasculinityMarxismWomen
Hamlet Feminist Criticism
This lack of prior knowledge of her being allows the reader to question the importance of her history. The question of the importance of her life is delegated and her current presence Is the only one that matters for the existence of the play. This …
Tacitus Germania and Women
Germania, written by the Roman Cornelius Tacitus in 98 A. D, is a historical work on the warlike Germanic tribes located north of the Danube and the Rhine rivers. Anthropology is the study of societies, cultures, and origins of human races. In Germania, Tacitus describes …
Feminism in Pop Culture
Many myths and misconceptions float around the term ‘Feminism’. It is a movement that is frequently projected as being violent, aggressive, and full of ‘bra burning’ extremists. The word alone often evokes reactions among people that are negative, uncomplimentary and stereotypical. The disturbing of the …
The Sexual Content in Angela Carter?S the Bloody Chamber
The Sexual Content in Angela Carter? s “The Bloody Chamber” The Bloody Chamber and Other Stories, is a selection of fairytales which have been re-written by Angela Carter to place them in the modern day. Carter has taken seven fairytales whose “latent content” she says …
FeminismSexismSexualityThe Bloody Chamber
“Feminism in generalis a collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defendingequalpolitical, economic, and social rights for women. ” Black Feminism is a strand of feminist thought, which highlights the manifold disadvantages of gender, class and race that shape the experiences of …
“The Story Girl” By Jamaica Kincaid Review
The Story Girl is a short story written by Jamaica Kincaid in 1978. It is an unorthodox text that gives an overview of the relationship between the girl and her mother also shows a list of rules that the mother gives to her daughter to …
FeminismGenderGirl by Jamaica KincaidMotherWomen
Discuss How Far Sociologists Would Agree
Many sociologists (e. g. Goran Therborn) argue that the typical nuclear family has disintegrated due to many different reasons, for example, the rise in feminism and women gaining more independence; higher diversity of relationships for example higher divorce rates, higher number of families co-habiting. his …
Using Satire to Create Awareness of Gender Roles: Egalia’s Daughters
Egalia’s Daughters and “Sultana’s Dream” Egalia’s Daughters and “Sultana’s Dream” both portray examples of what it would be like to have gender roles reversed in societies. They both criticize gender roles and show people how gender discrimination leaves the submissive gender in suppressed conditions. Poking …
Gender and the Importance of the Social Construction of Gender
“Gender” and the Importance of “The Social Construction of Gender. ” Gender is an individual’s natural sense of themselves existing as a male or female, which may hold opposing views from their biological sex. I believe sex and gender are two terms used interchangeably. Sex …
The Women Suffrage Movement (1840 -1920)
It would seem unbelievable that the women who lived before the 19th century were confined to their homes and actually had no freedom to choose the leaders that they wanted simply because they could not vote. This was not until the suffrage movement was formed …
Find extra essay topics on Essays on Feminism by our writers.
Feminism is a range of socio-political movements and ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the sexes. Feminism incorporates the position that societies prioritize the male point of view, and that women are treated unjustly within those societies.
Feminism And Its Three Waves Of Women Empowerment
The Wife of Bath Feminism in the Middle Ages
Good Example Of Literature Review On “Lady Lazarus” And “Barbie Doll”
Theme of Feminism in The Women Who Walked into Doors
Example Of Feminist Issues In The Caribbean Essay
Feminism in South Park
Feminism in the Handmaid’s Tale
Feminist and Womanist Criticism of African Literature: a Bibliography
Stereotypes in Afghanistan Society
The Limited Rights of Women in the Romantic and Victorian Age
Technology And Gender Essay
Gloria Steinem: Actual Wonder Woman
Feminist Perspectives In Modern Society – A Case Analysis Of The Film – Lost In Translation Essay
Three Waves of Feminism
Impact of Recent Changes in Capitalism on Social and Economic Status of Women
Women In Afghanistan: Violation Of Women Rights
Why we Still Need Feminism in the 21st Century
Women in the Progressive Era
Lady Gaga: Gender in Love Game
Gloria Steinem as a Wonder Woman
Fight for Islamic Women’s Right
Gender Issues On Media: The Pressure On Women To Have Perfect Bodies
Violence, Gender and Elder Abuse
Belstaff Case Study Report Example
The Themes of Feminism in The Yellow Wallpaper
Women and Environment
Gender Equality and Income Level
Free Sex & Gender: Differences Essay Sample
Susan B. Anthony: Her Life and Contributions to History
Argumentative Handmaids Tale
Education Was a Privilege for Women in the Mid 1800s
Women Rights Throughout History
Women Rights are Human Rights
the Use of Education of Change the Lives of Muslims and Japanese Women
Analysis of The Themes in The Yellow Wallpaper: Women's Rights in The Victorian Era
Feminism in Jane Eyre
A Research Paper on The Reasons Why Women Should Be Able to Have The Option of an Abortion
- National Organization for Wom...
- Association for Women...
- UN Women
- Global Fund for Women
- Feminist Majority Foundation
- We Should All Be Femi...
- Bad Feminist: Essays
- The Second Sex
- A Room of One's Own
- Men Explain Things t...
What should I write in an essay about feminism? ›
- Fashion and feminism.
- The impact of feminism on modern education.
- The feminist movement in your country.
- Gender stereotypes: how did they occur, and are they still relevant?
- Your own vision of modern feminism.
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) by Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy. A Room of One's Own (1929) by Virginia Woolf, is noted in its argument for both a literal and figural space for women writers within a literary tradition dominated by patriarchy.Which story could be a good example for feminist critiques? ›
Alice is an interesting case study for feminist critics. For, although written by a man during the Victorian Era, the book's strong female heroine and her adventures are a veritable gold mine for feminist critics to study.What is the main message of feminism? ›
So what does feminism mean to us? Quite simply, feminism is about all genders having equal rights and opportunities. It's about respecting diverse women's experiences, identities, knowledge and strengths, and striving to empower all women to realise their full rights.What is the main idea of feminism? ›
In general, feminism can be seen as a movement to put an end to sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression and to achieve full gender equality in law and in practice.What is a good sentence for feminism? ›
I spoke to a number of feminists, both black and white. Early work by feminists on social policy tended to see policies acting upon women. Western feminists emphasized the role of patriarchy rather than global inequalities. Episcopalian feminists had a more difficult time getting their voice heard.What is feminism a small paragraph? ›
Feminism is a social and political movement that advocates for the rights of women on the grounds of equality of sexes. It does not deny the biological differences between the sexes but demands equality in opportunities. It covers everything from social and political to economic arenas.What is the conclusion of feminism? ›
Feminism Essay Conclusion
The motive of feminism is to bring out equality among all the genders and to not segregate people based on their genders. Even after the strong impact of feminism in the modern world, the movement still has not reached every individual.
As a social movement, feminist criticism highlights the various ways women, in particular, have been oppressed, suppressed, and repressed. It asks new questions of old texts. It develops and uncovers a female tradition in writing. It analyzes women writers and their works from female perspectives” (Copeland 184-186).What are story prompts about feminism? ›
Feminist Writing Prompts
What ideas were you taught about what it means to be a woman and what it means to be a man? What experiences do you have as a target of, witness to, and/or perpetrator of sexism or sexual harassment? What was your response at the time?
What are the major concerns of feminist theory? ›
Feminist theory often focuses on analyzing gender inequality. Themes often explored in feminist theory include discrimination, objectification (especially sexual objectification), oppression, patriarchy, stereotyping, art history and contemporary art, and aesthetics.What are the three main ideas of feminism? ›
At its core, feminism is the belief in full social, economic, and political equality for women.What are the 5 basic ideas of feminism? ›
Most feminists agree on five basic principles—working to increase equality, expanding human choice, eliminating gender stratification, ending sexual violence, and promoting sexual freedom.What is an example question of feminism? ›
Do you think feminist movements are needed in this century? How wide is the gender gap in your country? What do you think feminists mean by 'reproductive freedom'? What is your opinion of 'sexual objectification' – portraying women (or men) as objects of sexual desire?What are the benefits of feminism? ›
Feminism is physically healthy because it comes from and encourages socially healthy historic choices and development dynamics. The development patterns that enable women's empowerment also produce more modern, equitable, and better governed societies with better performance on all dimensions of social well-being.What are the positive effects of feminism in the society? ›
The feminist movement has effected change in Western society, including women's suffrage; greater access to education; more equitable pay with men; the right to initiate divorce proceedings; the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy (including access to contraceptives and abortion); and the ...Why feminism is still needed? ›
Feminists highlight the burden of domestic duties and parental demands and try to instigate laws which could prompt cultural change, like paid parental leave. We still need feminism today because women are constantly seen as the inferior gender, compared to men even when we are at the top of our game.How does feminism affect us today? ›
In the 21st century, women and girls still face discrimination, unequal status, wage gaps, and daily violence. Feminism opposes exploitation and abuse based on gender and sexuality; feminism aims to achieve social justice. Have we inspired you to want to learn more?Is feminism a girl power? ›
“Girl Power” refers to an attitude that women and girls should be confident, make choices and achieve things independently of men. “Feminism”, on the other hand, is the belief that women should be treated the same and permitted the same rights and opportunities as men.Why is it important to stand up for women's rights? ›
According to the UN, “gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls is not just a goal in itself, but a key to sustainable development, economic growth, and peace and security”. Research has shown this to be the case – society gets better for everyone when women's rights are upheld and taken seriously.
What are the 12 types of feminism? ›
- Kinds of Feminism.
- Liberal Feminism.
- Radical Feminism.
- Marxist and Socialist Feminism.
- Cultural Feminism.
- I-Feminism new wave? http://www.ifeminists.net/introduction/
- feminist movement.
- women's lib.
- women's liberation.
- women's movement.
- Make use of social/print and electronic media. ...
- Call out inequality. ...
- Support non-profit organizations working for women. ...
- Rally political support. ...
- Elicit support from men.
Second-wave feminism ended in the early 1980s with the feminist sex wars and was succeeded by third-wave feminism in the early 1990s.What is feminist approach summary? ›
The feminist approach requires supporting the voice, agency and empowerment of women and girls in all their diversity and others who face discrimination or marginalization.What are the 6 themes of feminism? ›
The new “action coalition” themes are: gender-based violence, economic justice and rights, bodily autonomy and sexual and reproductive rights, feminist action for climate justice, technology innovation for gender equality and feminist movements and leadership.What is the main focus of feminism approach in literary criticism? ›
Feminist literary criticism looks at literature assuming its production from a male-dominated perspective. It re-examines canonical works to show how gender stereotypes are involved in their functioning. It examines (and often rediscovers) works by women for a possible alternative voice.What is the disadvantage of feminist theory? ›
The theory ultimately disempowers women. While women act based on caring non-females can act based on rights and duties or utility or some other basic principle and avoid dealing with women because theirs is not an ethic of rights or duties and thus they need not be afforded such.Why stories are so important in feminism? ›
Stories enable new ways of thinking about, and approaching, the world and ourselves. If our aim is gender equality, our stories – embodying and transmitting of norms and values – need to be (re)imagined and (re)told accordingly. For this, feminism needs to continue engaging with storytelling.What are the biggest feminist issues in our present society? ›
- 1) Violence against women and girls. ...
- 2) Gender pay gap. ...
- 3) Digital gender divide. ...
- 4) Informal work and instability. ...
- 5) Period poverty and stigma. ...
- 6) Underrepresentation as leaders in health.
What is the ethical issue of feminism? ›
Feminist ethicists believe there is an obligation for women's differing points of view to be heard and then to fashion an inclusive consensus view from them. To attempt to achieve this and to push towards gender equality with men together is the goal of feminist ethics.Who are the key theories in feminism? ›
Important feminist theorists of the 20th century include Betty Friedan, Julia Kristeva, Judith Butler, Elaine Showalter, Carol Gilligan, and Adrienne Rich.Which are two of the major goals of feminism? ›
The major goals of the feminist movement include creating equal opportunities and new freedoms for women. The purpose of the feminist movement has shifted over time. However, in all four waves, feminists have sought to end discrimination and violence by pursuing social and legal reform.What are two ideas of feminism? ›
Feminism works towards equality, not female superiority. Feminists respect individual, informed choices and believe there shouldn't be a double standard in judging a person. Everyone has the right to sexual autonomy and the ability to make decisions about when, how and with whom to conduct their sexual life.What are the four types of feminism? ›
Among the major feminist theories are liberal feminism, radical feminism, Marxist/socialist feminism, postmodern/poststructuralist feminism, and multiracial feminism.What are the main phases of feminism? ›
- First Wave: 1848 - 1920.
- Second Wave: 1963 - 1980s.
- Third Wave: 1990s -
- Fourth Wave: Present Day.
Feminism can be defined as the advocacy of women's rights on the basis of gender equality. In our Introduction to gender inequality open step, experts describe gender equality as denoting equal respect, rights and opportunities for everyone, regardless of gender identity.What are the three phases of feminism examples? ›
Three main types of feminism emerged: mainstream/liberal, radical, and cultural. Mainstream feminism focused on institutional reforms, which meant reducing gender discrimination, giving women access to male-dominated spaces, and promoting equality.What are some points about feminism? ›
Feminism works towards equality, not female superiority. Feminists respect individual, informed choices and believe there shouldn't be a double standard in judging a person. Everyone has the right to sexual autonomy and the ability to make decisions about when, how and with whom to conduct their sexual life.What is feminism short summary? ›
Feminism is a range of socio-political movements and ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the sexes. Feminism holds the position that societies prioritize the male point of view and that women are treated unjustly in these societies.
What are 3 positive effects of feminism? ›
The feminist movement has effected change in Western society, including women's suffrage; greater access to education; more equitable pay with men; the right to initiate divorce proceedings; the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy (including access to contraceptives and abortion); and the ...What impact did feminism have on society? ›
Feminism has provided Western women with increased educational opportunities, the right to vote, protections against workplace discrimination, and the right to make personal decisions about pregnancy. In some communities, feminism has also succeeded in challenging pervasive cultural norms about women.What are the 3 types of feminism? ›
Groupings. Traditionally feminism is often divided into three main traditions, sometimes known as the "Big Three" schools of feminist thought: liberal/mainstream feminism, radical feminism and socialist or Marxist feminism.Is feminism for women's rights? ›
Feminism is the path to achieve gender equality and women's rights. It is open to people from all genders and from all walks of life. Feminism is about collectively and actively transforming systems of oppression so that women, men and gender non-conforming people hold equal power, resources and rights.What are the three main principles of feminist theory? ›
Feminist theory has developed in three waves. The first wave focused on suffrage and political rights. The second focused on social inequality between the genders. The current, third wave emphasizes the concepts of globalization, postcolonialism, post-structuralism, and postmodernism.What are the types of feminism? ›
- Kinds of Feminism.
- Liberal Feminism.
- Radical Feminism.
- Marxist and Socialist Feminism.
- Cultural Feminism.
- I-Feminism new wave? http://www.ifeminists.net/introduction/
The wave formally began at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 when three hundred men and women rallied to the cause of equality for women. Elizabeth Cady Stanton (d.1902) drafted the Seneca Falls Declaration outlining the new movement's ideology and political strategies.What is the history of feminism? ›
First-wave feminism of the 19th and early 20th centuries focused on overturning legal inequalities, particularly addressing issues of women's suffrage. Second-wave feminism (1960s–1980s) broadened debate to include cultural inequalities, gender norms, and the role of women in society.