1851 Women's Rights Convention (2022)

Worcester, Massachusetts, Oct. 15, 1851

At this convention — the second national convention for women's rights — Ernestine made a dramatic speech that was widely noted for its impact. Paulina Wright Davis later referred to it as "unsurpassed."

Preceding Rose's speech, a letter was read to the convention from Jeanne Deroin and Pauline Roland, two French feminists imprisoned for attempting to stand for election to the Constituent Assembly. Ernestine Rose, ever an internationalist, was part of the first international women's movement (Anderson, 2000).

(Video) Sojourner Truth’s, 1851 Women’s Rights Convention Speech, Spoken Word Poem

Rose's ties to European women fighting for women's rights may have preceded her emigration to America in 1836. She was probably the recipient and translator of this letter (Kolmerten, 1999), addressed to American women rights activists.

Speech of Ernestine Rose (abridged)

After having heard the letter read from our poor incarcerated sisters of France, well might we exclaim, Alas poor France! Where is thy glory? Where is the glory of the Revolution of 1848, in which shone forth the pure and magnanimous spirit of an oppressed nation struggling for freedom!… Where again I ask is the result of those noble achievements, when woman, aye, one half of the nation, is deprived of her rights: Has woman, then been idle during the contest between "right and might"? Has she been wanting in ardor and enthusiasm? Has she not mingled her blood with that of her husband, son and sire? Or has she been recreant in hailing the motto of liberty… that at the first step she takes practically to claim the recognition of her rights she is rewarded with the doom of a martyr?

…(yet) why should women not be a martyr for her cause?

…But need we wonder that France, governed as she is by Russian and Austrian despotism, does not recognize the rights of humanity in the recognition of the Rights of Woman,* when even here, in this far-famed land of freedom… woman, the mockingly so-called "better half" of man, has yet to plead for her rights...In the laws of the land, she has no rights; in government she has no voice. And in spite of another principle recognized in this Republic, namely, that "taxation without representation is tyranny," she is taxed without being represented. Her property may be consumed by taxes to defray the expenses of that unholy, unrighteous custom called war, yet she has no power to give her vote against it. From the cradle to the grave she is subject to the power and control of man. Father, guardian or husband, one conveys her like some piece of merchandise over to the other.

(Video) Who said, “I am a woman's rights,” at the 1851 Women's Rights Convention?

At marriage she loses her entire identity, and her being is said to have become merged in her husband. Has nature thus merged it? Has she ceased to exist and feel pleasure and pain? When she violates the laws of her being, does her husband pay the penalty? When she breaks the moral law does he suffer the punishment? When he satisfies his wants, is it enough to satisfy her nature?… What an inconsistency that from the moment she enters the compact in which she assumes the high responsibility of wife and mother, she ceases legally to exist and becomes a purely submissive being. Blind submission in women is considered a virtue, while submission to wrong is itself wrong, and resistance to wrong is virtue alike in women as in man.

But it will be said that the husband provides for the wife, or in other words, he feeds, clothes and shelters her! I wish I had the power to make every one before me fully realize the degradation contained in that idea. Yes! He keeps her, and so he does a favorite horse; by law they are both considered his property. Both may, when the cruelty of the owner compels them to run away, be brought back by the strong arm of the law and according to a still extant law in England, both may be led by the halter to the market place and sold. This is humiliating indeed but nevertheless true, and the sooner these things are known and understood, the better for humanity. It is no fancy sketch. I know that some endeavor to throw the mantle of romance over the subject and treat woman like some ideal existence, not liable to the ills of life. Let those deal in fancy who have nothing better to deal in; we have to do with sober, sad realities, with stubborn facts.

Again, I shall be told that the law presumes the husband to be kind, affectionate, and ready to provide for and protect his wife. But what right, I ask, has the law to presume at all on the subject? What right has the law to in trust the interest and happiness of one being into the hands of another? And if the merging of the interest of one being in the other is a necessary consequence on marriage, why should the woman always remain on the losing side? Turn the tables. Think you she would act less generously toward him, than he toward her?…

Man forgets that woman can not be degraded without its reacting on himself. The impress of her mind is stamped on him by nature and the early education of the mother, which no after-training can entirely efface; and therefore, the estimation she is held in falls back with double force upon him. Yet, from the force of prejudice against her, he knows it not.

(Video) What Happened at the Seneca Falls Convention? | History

Not long ago, I saw an account of two offenders, brought before a Justice of New York. One was charged with stealing a pair of boots, for which offense he was sentenced to six months' imprisonment; the other crime was assault and battery upon his wife; he was let off with a reprimand by the judge! With my principles, I am entirely opposed to punishment, and hold that to reform the erring and remove the causes of evil is much more efficient, as well as just, than to punish. But the judge showed us the comparative value which he set on these two kinds of property. But then you must remember that the boots were taken by a stranger, while the wife was insulted by her legal owner! …

It is high time… to compel man by the might of right to give woman her political, legal and social rights… She will find her own sphere in accordance with her capacities, powers and tastes; and yet she will be woman still… Away with that folly that her rights would be detrimental to her character — that if she were recognized as the equal to a man she would cease to be a woman! Have his rights as a citizen of a republic, the elective franchise with all its advantages, so changed his nature that he has cease to be man? …

But say some, would you expose woman to the contact of rough, rude, drinking, swearing, fighting men at the ballot box? What a humiliating confession lies in this plea for keeping woman in the background! Is the brutality of some men, then, a reason why woman should be kept from her rights? If man, in his superior wisdom, cannot devise means to enable woman to deposit her vote without having her finer sensibilities shocked by such disgraceful conduct, then there is an additional reason as well as necessity why she should be there to civilize, refine and purify him, even at the ballot box…

Do you not yet understand what has made woman what she is? Then see what the sickly taste and perverted judgment of man now admires in woman. Not health and strength of body and mind, but a pale delicate face; hands too small to grasp a broom, for that were treason to a lady; a voice so sickly, sentimental and depressed, as to hear what she says only by the moving of her half-parted lips; and, above all that nervous sensibility that sees a ghost in every passing shadow — that beautiful diffidence that dare not take a step without the arm of a man to support her tender frame, and that shrinking (mock) modesty that faints at the mention of the leg of a table… Oh! The crying injustice towards woman! She is crushed in every step she takes, and then insulted for being what a most pernicious education and corrupt public sentiment has made her…

(Video) Sojourner Truth delivers powerful speech on African American women's rights May 29, 1851

We have hardly an adequate idea how all-powerful law is in forming public opinion, in giving tone and character to the mass of society. To illustrate my point, look at that infamous, detestable law, which was written in human blood, and signed and sealed with life and liberty, that eternal stain on the statute book of this country, the Fugitive Slave Law. Think you that before its passage, you could have found any in the free states — except a few politicians in the market — base enough to desire such a law! No! No! Even those who took no interest in the slave question would have shrunk from so barbarous a thing. But no sooner was it passed than the ignorant, the rabble of the self-styled Union Safety Committee, found out that we were a law-loving, law abiding people! Such is the magic power of Law! Hence the necessity to guard against bad ones. Hence also the reason why we call on the nation to remove the legal shackles from woman, and it will have a beneficial effect on that still greater tyrant she has to contend with, Public Opinion.

Carry out the republican principle of universal suffrage, or strike it from your banners and substitute "Freedom and Power to one half of society, and Submission and Slavery to the other." Give women the elective franchise. Let married women have the same right to property that their husbands have; for whatever the difference in their respective occupations, the duties of the wife are as indispensable and far more arduous than her husband's. Why then, should the wife, at the death of her husband, not be his heir to the same extent that he is heir to her? In this inequality there is involved another wrong. When the wife dies, the husband is left in the undisturbed possession of there is, and the children are left with him; no change is made, no stranger intrudes on his home and his affliction. But when the husband dies, the widow at best receives a mere pittance, while strangers assume authority denied to the wife. The sanctuary of affliction must be desecrated by executors; everything must be ransacked and assessed, lest she should steal something out of her own house: and to cap the climax, the children must be placed under guardians. When the husband dies poor, to be sure no guardian is required, and the children are left for the mother to care and toil for, as best she may. But when anything is left for their maintenance, then it must be placed in the hands of strangers for safekeeping! The bringing up and safety of the children are left with the mother, and safe they are in her hands. But a few hundred or thousand dollars can not be intrusted with her!

But, say they, "in case of a second marriage, the children must be protected in their property." Does that reason not hold as good in the case of the husband as in that of the wife? …

According to a late act, the wife has a right to the property she brings at marriage, or receives in any way after marriage. Here is some provision for the favored few; but for the laboring many, there is none. The mass of the people commence life with no other capital than the union of head, hearts and hands. To the benefit of this best of capital the wife has no right. If they are unsuccessful in married life, who suffers more the bitter consequences of poverty than the wife? But if successful, she has not a dollar to call her own…

(Video) Who said, “I am a woman’s rights,” at the 1851 Women's Rights Convention?

In case of separation, why should the children be taken from the protecting care of the mother? Who has a better right to them than she? How much do fathers generally do toward bringing them up? When he comes home from business and the child is in good humor and handsome trim, he takes the little darling on his knee and plays with it. But when the wife with the care of the whole household on her shoulders, is not able to put them in the best order, how much care does he do for them? Oh no! Fathers like to have children good-natured, well-behaved and comfortable, but how to put them in that desirable condition is out of their philosophy… Whether from nature, habit, or both, the mother is much more capable of administering to their health and comfort than the father and therefore she has the best right to them. And where there is property, it ought to be divided equally between them, with an additional provision from the father toward the maintenance and education of the children.

Much is said about the burdens and responsibilities of married men. Responsibilities indeed there are, if they but felt them: but as to burdens what are they?… I grant that owing to the present unjust and unequal reward for labor, many have to work too hard for a subsistence; but whatever his vocation, he has to attend (to his business) before as after marriage. Look at your bachelors, and see if they do not strive as much for wealth, and attend as steadily to business as married men. No! the husband has little or increase of burden, and every increase of comfort after marriage; while most of the burdens, cares, pains and penalties of married life fall on the wife. How unjust and cruel then to have all the laws in his favor! If any difference should be made by law between husband and wife, reason, justice and humanity, if their voices were heard, would dictate that it should be in her favor.

… [T]here is no reason against woman's elevation, but… prejudices. The main cause is a pernicious falsehood propagated against her being, namely that she is inferior by her nature. Inferior in what? What has man ever done that woman, under the same advantages could not do? In morals, bad as she is, she is generally considered his superior. In the intellectual sphere, give her a fair chance before you pronounce a verdict against her. Cultivate the frontal portion of her brain as much as that of man is cultivated, and she will stand his equal at least. Even now, where her mind has been called out at all, her intellect is as bright, as capacious and as powerful as his. Will you tell us that women have no Newtons, Shakespeares and Byrons? Greater natural powers that even those possessed may have been destroyed in woman for want of proper culture, a just appreciation, reward for merit as an incentive to exertion and freedom of action, without which mind becomes cramped and stifled, for it cannot expand without bolts and bars; and yet amid all blighting crushing circumstances — confined within the narrowest possible limits, trampled upon by prejudice and injustice, from her education and position forced to occupy herself almost exclusively with the most trivial affairs — in spite of all these difficulties, her intellect is as good as his. The few bright meteors in man's intellectual horizon could well be matched by women, were she allowed to occupy the same elevated position. There is no need of naming the de Staels, the Rolands, the Somervilles, the Wollstonecrafts, the Sigourneys, the Wrights, the Martineaus, … the Fullers, Jagellos and many more of modern as well as earliest times, to prove her mental powers, her patriotism, her self-sacrificing devotion to the cause of humanity, and the eloquence that gushes from her pen, or from her tongue. These things are too well known to require repetition. And do you ask for fortitude, energy and perseverance? Then look at woman under suffering, reverse of fortune, and affliction when the strength and power of man have sunk to the lowest ebb, when his mind is overwhelmed by the dark waters of despair. She like the tender ivy plant, bent, yet unbroken by the storms of life, not only upholds her own hopeful courage, but clings around the tempest-fallen oak, to speak hope to his faltering spirit, and shelter him from the returning blast of the storm. (quoted in HWS, v. 1, pp. 237-242.)

FAQs

What was the women's rights convention in 1851? ›

At the 1851 Women's Rights Convention held in Akron, Ohio, Sojourner Truth delivered what is now recognized as one of the most famous abolitionist and women's rights speeches in American history, “Ain't I a Woman?” She continued to speak out for the rights of African Americans and women during and after the Civil War.

What happened at the women's rights convention? ›

Heralded as the first women's rights convention in the United States, it was held at the Wesleyan Chapel in Seneca Falls, New York, on July 19 and 20, 1848. At that conference, activist and leader Elizabeth Cady Stanton drafted The Declaration of Sentiments, which called for women's equality and suffrage.

Who attended the 1851 women's convention? ›

Conference attendees included approximately 260 women and 40 men, among them escaped slave and abolitionist Frederick Douglass.

What was the purpose of the women's rights convention? ›

Originally known as the Woman's Rights Convention, the Seneca Falls Convention fought for the social, civil and religious rights of women. The meeting was held from July 19 to 20, 1848 at the Wesleyan Chapel in Seneca Falls, New York. Despite scarce publicity, 300 people—mostly area residents—showed up.

Did the women's rights movement succeed? ›

The women's movement was most successful in pushing for gender equality in workplaces and universities. The passage of Title IX in 1972 forbade sex discrimination in any educational program that received federal financial assistance. The amendment had a dramatic affect on leveling the playing field in girl's athletics.

Where was the women's rights convention held 1851? ›

The “Woman's Rights Convention” held in Akron, Ohio in 1851 took place just a few years after the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848, which many consider to be the landmark convention on women's rights in the U.S. Over the course of the two-day convention, Ohio men and women gave speeches, sang songs, and read poems in ...

What were 3 major events in the women's rights movement? ›

Here are just some of the many important events that happened as women gained the right to vote.
  • 1848. First Women's Rights Convention. ...
  • 1849. The First National Women's Rights Convention. ...
  • 1851. “Ain't I a woman?” ...
  • 1861-1865. The Civil War. ...
  • 1866. Formation of the American Equal Rights Association. ...
  • 1867. ...
  • 1868. ...
  • 1870.
10 Nov 2020

What happened at the first National Woman's rights convention 1850? ›

The first National Women's Rights Convention met in Brinley Hall in Worcester, Massachusetts, on October 23–24, 1850. Some 900 people showed up for the first session, men forming the majority, with several newspapers reporting over a thousand attendees by the afternoon of the first day, and more turned away outside.

Who started the women's rights movement? ›

Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a young mother from upstate New York, and the Quaker abolitionist Lucretia Mott, about 300 people—most of whom were women—attended the Seneca Falls Convention to outline a direction for the women's rights movement.

How did the women's movement start? ›

The 1848 Seneca Falls Woman's Rights Convention marked the beginning of the women's rights movement in the United States.

What caused the Seneca Falls Convention? ›

The desire to address this inequality and challenge the country to live up to its revolutionary promise led to a two-day convention in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848, where 300 women and men gathered to debate Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Declaration of Sentiments.

Whats that got to do with women's rights or Negroes rights? ›

What's that got to do with women's rights or negroes' rights? If my cup won't hold but a pint, and yours holds a quart, wouldn't you be mean not to let me have my little half measure full? Then that little man in black there, he says women can't have as much rights as men, 'cause Christ wasn't a woman!

What was the first women's rights? ›

Truth was, in fact, a New Yorker. Dec. 10, 1869: The legislature of the territory of Wyoming passes America's first woman suffrage law, granting women the right to vote and hold office.

What was the first women's rights convention? ›

Seneca Falls, N.Y., served as the stage for the first women's rights convention in the United States in July 1848. Dubbed the Seneca Falls Convention, the gathering of roughly 300 people launched the women's suffrage movement, which seven-plus decades later ensured women the right to vote.

What event triggered the women's suffrage movement? ›

Women in America first collectively organized in 1848 at the First Women's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, NY to fight for suffrage (or voting rights). Organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, the convention sparked the women's suffrage movement.

What were major issues in the women's movement? ›

Activists fought for gender issues, women's sexual liberation, reproductive rights, job opportunities for women, violence against women, and changes in custody and divorce laws. It is believed the feminist movement gained attention in 1963, when Betty Friedan published her novel, The Feminine Mystique.

How did the women's movement change society? ›

The feminist movement has effected change in Western society, including women's suffrage; greater access to education; more equitable pay with men; the right to initiate divorce proceedings; the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy (including access to contraceptives and abortion); and the ...

How did the women's rights movement changed society? ›

The 19th Amendment helped millions of women move closer to equality in all aspects of American life. Women advocated for job opportunities, fairer wages, education, sex education, and birth control.

Who was involved in the National Woman's rights convention? ›

Held over two days in Worcester, Massachusetts, the 1850 Woman's Rights Convention was planned by members of the Anti-Slavery Society, among them Lucy Stone, Abby Kelley Foster, Paulina Wright Davis and Harriot Kezia Hunt.

What was one long term effect of the Seneca Falls Convention? ›

Answer. Answer: The long term effects of the convention were that women finally gained the right to vote and later equality with men. The Seneca Falls Convention was also a turning point in history because it set the women's rights movement into motion.

How long was the women's suffrage movement? ›

The women's suffrage movement was a decades-long fight to win the right to vote for women in the United States. It took activists and reformers nearly 100 years to win that right, and the campaign was not easy: Disagreements over strategy threatened to cripple the movement more than once.

When did females get equal rights? ›

On March 22, 1972, the Equal Rights Amendment is passed by the U.S. Senate and sent to the states for ratification. First proposed by the National Woman's political party in 1923, the Equal Rights Amendment was to provide for the legal equality of the sexes and prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex.

Who is the most famous female in history? ›

Virgin Mary, 1st-century BC–1st-century AD. The mother of Jesus, Mary is venerated by both Christians and Muslims, and is probably the most famous woman in history.

How did the 1840 World's Anti Slavery convention affect the women's suffrage movement? ›

Women were not allowed to fully participate in the convention; this directly led to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. Women were not allowed to fully participate in the convention; this led several key female activists to shift their focus to women's rights.

When was the end of women's suffrage? ›

That story began with the Seneca Falls Convention in upstate New York in 1848 and ended with the triumphant adoption of the amendment on Aug. 26, 1920, which resulted in the single largest extension of democratic voting rights in American history.

What was the most controversial issue at the Seneca Falls Convention? ›

This transcript shows the discussions from the Woman's Rights Convention held at Seneca Falls on July 19th and 20th, 1848. The main question the convention focused on was the “social, civil, and religious conditions of woman.”

What was the main goal of the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848? ›

The Seneca Falls Convention was the first women's rights convention. It advertised itself as "a convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman". Held in the Wesleyan Chapel of the town of Seneca Falls, New York, it spanned two days over July 19–20, 1848.

How many men were at Seneca Falls? ›

It was organized by a handful of women who were active in the abolition and temperance movements and held July 19–20, 1848, in Seneca Falls, New York. Intended to call attention to unfair treatment of women, the convention was attended by about 300 people, including about 40 men.

How do you fight women's rights? ›

8 ways to change the course for women's rights
  1. Raise your voice. ...
  2. Volunteer. ...
  3. Start a fundraiser. ...
  4. Attend marches and protests. ...
  5. Donate to women's movements and organisations. ...
  6. Shop smartly. ...
  7. Challenge events. ...
  8. Become a corporate sponsor.
16 Apr 2019

What does no man could head me mean? ›

Eleby compare a pint and a quart to? A personal blue bell ice cream carton and a big bucket of ice cream. When Truth states, "I have ploughed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man can head me!" What does the term 'head' mean? No man can do their job better than her.

What is one of the most important issues for women's rights activists in the United States today? ›

Today, gender bias continues to create huge barriers for many women. Ongoing struggles include ensuring equal economic opportunities, educational equity, and an end to gender-based violence.

What was the last country to give women's rights? ›

The world's first female members of parliament were elected in Finland the following year. In Europe, the last jurisdiction to grant women the right to vote was the Swiss canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden (AI), in 1991; AI is the smallest Swiss canton with c.

What happened at the first National Woman's rights convention 1850? ›

The first National Women's Rights Convention met in Brinley Hall in Worcester, Massachusetts, on October 23–24, 1850. Some 900 people showed up for the first session, men forming the majority, with several newspapers reporting over a thousand attendees by the afternoon of the first day, and more turned away outside.

What was the reason for the 1851 Akron Ohio Conference? ›

The first Women's Rights Convention being held at Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. However, the Convention taking place at Akron, Ohio in 1851 was significant as Ohio was in a state of reform and the objective of this Convention was to contend for the Suffrage rights of Women in the state of Ohio and in US overall.

When was the first National Woman's rights convention? ›

On October 23, 1850, the first National Woman's Rights Convention began in Worcester, Massachusetts.

How did women's roles change in the 1800s? ›

During the late 1800s and early 1900s, women and women's organizations not only worked to gain the right to vote, they also worked for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms. Between 1880 and 1910, the number of women employed in the United States increased from 2.6 million to 7.8 million.

What were 3 major events in the women's rights movement? ›

Here are just some of the many important events that happened as women gained the right to vote.
  • 1848. First Women's Rights Convention. ...
  • 1849. The First National Women's Rights Convention. ...
  • 1851. “Ain't I a woman?” ...
  • 1861-1865. The Civil War. ...
  • 1866. Formation of the American Equal Rights Association. ...
  • 1867. ...
  • 1868. ...
  • 1870.
10 Nov 2020

Who started the women's rights movement? ›

Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a young mother from upstate New York, and the Quaker abolitionist Lucretia Mott, about 300 people—most of whom were women—attended the Seneca Falls Convention to outline a direction for the women's rights movement.

Who fought for women's right to vote? ›

In 1869, a new group called the National Woman Suffrage Association was founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. They began to fight for a universal-suffrage amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

What was the Ohio women's rights Convention? ›

The Ohio Women's Convention at Salem in 1850 met on April 19–20, 1850 in Salem, Ohio, a center for reform activity. It was the third in a series of women's rights conventions that began with the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848. It was the first of these conventions to be organized on a statewide basis.

Was Sojourner Truth at the Seneca Falls Convention? ›

Reformers like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Frederick Douglass led the gathering, and their activism drew other leaders like Sojourner Truth and Susan B. Anthony to the cause. Even for those who did not attend, the meeting was an important moment in the fight for women's rights.

What does I sell the shadow to support the substance mean? ›

To fund her advocacy work, Truth sold pictures of herself. These early photographs often included the caption, "I sell the shadow to support the substance," meaning that selling images of herself - that is, the "shadow" - allowed the flesh and blood to live and work.

Where was the first National woman's rights convention located? ›

In 1848, 240 men and women met for the first woman's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York, and issued what amounted to a women's Declaration of Independence.

What caused the Seneca Falls Convention? ›

The desire to address this inequality and challenge the country to live up to its revolutionary promise led to a two-day convention in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848, where 300 women and men gathered to debate Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Declaration of Sentiments.

Who fought for women's rights in the 1800s? ›

Several activists in antislavery joined the women's rights movement. Lucy Stone, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, Abby Kelley Foster, and Sojourner Truth are among the most well known.

What were women's rights like in the 1800s? ›

Women couldn't own property, and they had to give any money they made over to their husbands. They also weren't allowed to vote. By the mid-1800s, women started to fight back, demanding suffrage, or the right to vote.

Videos

1. Ain't I a Woman? - Sojourner Truth, 1851 Women's Rights Convention.
(Tina Lifford and The Inner Fitness Project)
2. Sojourner Truth Speech of 1851, "Ain't I a Woman"
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3. Sojourner Truth - Ain't I a Woman? - 1851 - Hear the Text
(TimelessReader1)
4. Ain't I a Woman by Sojourner Truth |One of d most famous women's rights speeches in American history
(GREATEST SPEECHES)
5. Sojourner Truth’s “Ain’t I a Woman” Performed by Kerry Washington
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6. The electrifying speeches of Sojourner Truth - Daina Ramey Berry
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